Showing posts from October, 2011

Improve math skills of your kids - Learn step-by-step arithmetic from Math games

Math: Unknown - Step-by-step math calculation game for iOS.

Math: Unknown is much more than a math game. It is a step-by-step math calculation game which will teach users how to calculate in the correct order rather than just asking only the final calculated results.

The app consists of four basic arithmetic operations which are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In order to get started, users who are new to arithmetic can learn from animated calculation guides showing step-by-step procedures of solving each type of operation. It is also helpful for experienced users as a quick reference.

Generally, addition and subtraction may be difficult for users who just start learning math especially when questions require carrying or borrowing (also called regrouping). The app helps users to visualize the process of carrying and borrowing in the way it will be done on paper. Once users understand how these operations work, they are ready to learn multiplication and division.

For most students, division is considered as the most difficult arithmetic operation to solve. It is a common area of struggle since it requires prior knowledge of both multiplication and subtraction. To help users understand division, the app uses long division to teach all calculation procedures. Relevant multiplication table will be shown beside the question. Users will have to pick a number from the table which go into the dividend. Multiplication of selected number and divisor is automatically calculated, but the users have to do subtraction and drop down the next digit themselves. Learning whole calculation processes will make them master it in no time.

Math: Unknown is a helpful app for students who seriously want to improve arithmetic calculation skills.

Column Design (Part 4)

From Column Design (Part 3), we compute the value of column constant (Cc) and slenderness ratio (KL/r_min) to check whether the column is long or short.
If the column is long, Euler formula will be used for calculation. The Euler formula is defined as,
Another form of this equation can be calculated form substituting r2 = I/A into the above equation. Then we get,
Notice that the buckling load is dependent only on the length (L), cross section (I) and the stiffness of material (E) of the column. The strength of the material is not involved at all. Therefore, in a long column application, there is no benefit to use a high-strength material. A low-strength material having the same modulus of elasticity (E) would perform well.

See the J.B. Johnson formula in the next post.

Machine Elements in Mechanical Design (4th Edition)