Saturday, September 22, 2007

Properties of Friction

Friction is the resistance to motion that takes place when one body is moved upon another, and is generally defined as “that force which acts between two bodies at their surface of contact, so as to resist their sliding on each other.” According to the conditions under which sliding occurs, the force of friction, F, bears a certain relation to the force between the two bodies called the normal force N. The relation between force of friction and normal force is given by the coefficient of friction, generally denoted by the Greek letter μ. Thus:

F = μ × N and μ = F/N

A body weighing 28 pounds rests on a horizontal surface. The force required to keep it in motion along the surface is 7 pounds. Find the coefficient of friction.

μ = F/N = 7/28 = 0.25

If a body is placed on an inclined plane, the friction between the body and the plane will prevent it from sliding down the inclined surface, provided the angle of the plane with the horizontal is not too great. There will be a certain angle, however, at which the body will just barely be able to remain stationary, the frictional resistance being very nearly overcome by the tendency of the body to slide down. This angle is termed the angle of repose, and the tangent of this angle equals the coefficient of friction. The angle of repose is frequently denoted by the Greek letter θ. Thus, μ = tan θ.
A greater force is required to start a body moving from a state of rest than to merely keep it in motion, because the friction of rest is greater than the friction of motion.
Laws of Friction
The laws of friction for unlubricated or dry surfaces are summarized in the following statements.
  1. For low pressures (normal force per unit area) the friction is directly proportional to the normal force between the two surfaces. As the pressure increases, the friction does not rise proportionally; but when the pressure becomes abnormally high, the friction increases at a rapid rate until seizing takes place.
  2. The friction both in its total amount and its coefficient is independent of the areas in contact, so long as the normal force remains the same. This is true for moderate pressures only. For high pressures, this law is modified in the same way as in the first case.
  3. At very low velocities the friction is independent of the velocity of rubbing. As the velocities increase, the friction decreases.
Lubricated Surfaces: For well lubricated surfaces, the laws of friction are considerably different from those governing dry or poorly lubricated surfaces.
  1. The frictional resistance is almost independent of the pressure (normal force per unit area) if the surfaces are flooded with oil.
  2. The friction varies directly as the speed, at low pressures; but for high pressures the friction is very great at low velocities, approaching a minimum at about two feet per second linear velocity, and afterwards increasing approximately as the square root of the speed.
  3. For well lubricated surfaces the frictional resistance depends, to a very great extent, on the temperature, partly because of the change in the viscosity of the oil and partly because, for a journal bearing, the diameter of the bearing increases with the rise of temperature more rapidly than the diameter of the shaft, thus relieving the bearing of side pressure.
  4. If the bearing surfaces are flooded with oil, the friction is almost independent of the nature of the material of the surfaces in contact. As the lubrication becomes less ample, the coefficient of friction becomes more dependent upon the material of the surfaces.
Influence of Friction on the Efficiency of Small Machine Elements
Friction between machine parts lowers the efficiency of a machine. Average values of the efficiency, in per cent, of the most common machine elements when carefully made are ordinary bearings, 95 to 98; roller bearings, 98; ball bearings, 99; spur gears with cut teeth, including bearings, 99; bevel gears with cut teeth, including bearings, 98; belting, from 96 to 98; high-class silent power transmission chain, 97 to 99; roller chains, 95 to 97.

Coefficients of Friction
Tables 1 and 2 provide representative values of static friction for various combinations of materials with dry (clean, unlubricated) and lubricated surfaces.The values for static or breakaway friction shown in these tables will generally be higher than the subsequent or sliding friction. Typically, the steel-on-steel static coefficient of 0.8 unlubricated will drop to 0.4 when sliding has been initiated; with oil lubrication, the value will drop from 0.16 to 0.03.
Many factors affect friction, and even slight deviations from normal or test conditions can produce wide variations. Accordingly, when using friction coefficients in design calculations, due allowance or factors of safety should be considered, and in critical applications, specific tests conducted to provide specific coefficients for material, geometry, and/or lubricant combinations.

Rolling Friction
When a body rolls on a surface, the force resisting the motion is termed rolling friction or rolling resistance. Let W = total weight of rolling body or load on wheel, in pounds; r = radius of wheel, in inches; f = coefficient of rolling resistance, in inches. Then: resistance to rolling, in pounds = (W × f) ÷ r.

The coefficient of rolling resistance varies with the conditions. For wood on wood it may be assumed as 0.06 inch; for iron on iron, 0.02 inch; iron on granite, 0.085 inch; iron on asphalt, 0.15 inch; and iron on wood, 0.22 inch.

The coefficient of rolling resistance, f, is in inches and is not the same as the sliding or static coefficient of friction given in Tables 1 and 2, which is a dimensionless ratio between frictional resistance and normal load. Various investigators are not in close agreement on the true values for these coefficients and the foregoing values should only be used for the approximate calculation of rolling resistance.

Source: google book

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